[Net-Gold] TOURISM AND TRAVEL: HERITAGE TOURISM : REFERENCE TOOLS : BOOKS: Finding Heritage Tourism in a Selection of Reference Tools: A Selection of Sources

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TOURISM AND TRAVEL: HERITAGE TOURISM :

REFERENCE TOOLS :

BOOKS:

Finding Heritage Tourism in a Selection of Reference Tools:
A Selection of Sources and Database Search Results

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WEBBIB1516

http://tinyurl.com/q8tavoy

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WEBBIB1516

http://tinyurl.com/q8tavoy

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Title A dictionary of travel and tourism terminology
CABI Publishing Series
Cabi Series
Author Allan Beaver
Edition 2, revised
Publisher CABI, 2005
ISBN 0851990207, 9780851990200
Length 409 pages

Definition of heritage tourism

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Encyclopedia of American Studies
Mid-Atlantic Region

“Even as the region’s story seemed most likely to merge with the nation’s,
elements of distinctiveness reemerged. The popularity of such concepts as
heritage tourism, “smart growth,” and the “new urbanism”-not so much an
innovation but the application of traditional design elements to largely
undifferentiated suburbs-allowed for the rediscovery and reassertion of
distinctiveness. If this region was seeking to establish its identity, it
had much to work with. Even as it has struggled to distinguish its parts
from one another, as well as from the national whole, the Mid-Atlantic has
remained a linchpin in the national experience.”
Encyclopedia of American studies
Author: Grolier Educational (Firm)
Publisher: [Danbury, CT] : Grolier, 2005-

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The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism
Global Growth and Magnitude of Ecotourism

“Cultural and heritage tourism. Culture and history are the most popular
of tourist activities. Experiencing different customs and lifestyles,
learning about historical cultures, visiting historic sites, folklore and
theatre characterizes this type of tourism.”
Title The encyclopedia of ecotourism
CABI Publishing Series
Cabi Series
Author David Bruce Weaver
Editor David Bruce Weaver
Edition illustrated, reprint
Publisher CABI, 2001
ISBN 0851993680, 9780851993683
Length 668 pages

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The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism
Anglo-America

“Hot continental: This region of broadleaved forests (mixed forest and
meadow at higher elevations) contains Great Smoky Mountains National Park,
which is located on the border of Tennessee and North Carolina. It is both
a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve, and hosts
over 9 million visits per year. Five different forest types dominate the
Great Smoky Mountains, and together they support 130 species of trees and
4000 other plant species (US National Parks Net, 1999c). Wildlife is also
abundant in the park, including black bear, the reintroduced red wolf,
coyote, bobcat, bats, European boar, the river otter, timber rattlesnake,
copperhead, juncos, cardinals, blue jays, pileated woodpecker and wild
turkeys.”

Title The encyclopedia of ecotourism
CABI Publishing Series
Cabi Series
Author David Bruce Weaver
Editor David Bruce Weaver
Edition illustrated, reprint
Publisher CABI, 2001
ISBN 0851993680, 9780851993683
Length 668 pages

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Pop Culture Latin America! Media, Arts, and Lifestyle
Travel and Tourism

Cited Book:

Zeppel, Heather, and Colin Michael Hall. 1992.
“Arts and Heritage Tourism.”
Pp. 47-68 in Special Interest Tourism,
edited by Betty Weiler and Colin Michael Hall.
London: Belhaven Press.

Title Pop culture Latin America!: media, arts, and lifestyle
Popular culture in the contemporary world
Popular Culture Series
Authors Lisa Shaw, Stephanie Dennison
Edition illustrated
Publisher ABC-CLIO, 2005
ISBN 1851095047, 9781851095049
Length 404 pages

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures:
The Southwest
Folklore

“So many festivals have lately become creations of chambers of
commerce-tourist traps only remotely connected to original meanings and
intentions. As the tide of cultural and heritage tourism rises, more and
more groups are reevaluating their traditional celebrations as ticketable
venues. (Of note, the Texas Historical Commission has instituted a program
whereby agents will meet with interested groups and conduct workshops that
help communities to share resources and draw a greater number of
tourists.) The almighty dollar reigns supreme, and although deeply
religious or traditional performances still hang on in the Southwest, many
are merely vestiges maintained by the pure stubbornness and dedication of
their participants.”
Title The Greenwood encyclopedia of American regional cultures
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures, William R.
Ferris, ISBN 0313332665, 9780313332661
Contributor William R. Ferris
Publisher Greenwod Press, 2004
ISBN 0313327343, 9780313327346

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Sports and Recreation
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures:
The Great Plains Region

“This chapter examines sport and recreation in the five states that form
the core of the Great Plains: North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas,
and Oklahoma. As a means of examining the evolution as well as the social
and economic dimensions of sport and recreation, the discussion is divided
into three sections. The first provides a historical look at sport among
the area’s early residents, including Native Americans, soldiers, cowboys,
and homesteaders. The second section examines interest and participation
in community-based sports, high-school and collegiate athletics, and the
professional spectrum. Some unique factors have influenced the development
of sport and recreation in Plains communities, especially settlement
patterns and population density. The final section considers recreational
facilities and heritage tourism.”
Title The Greenwood encyclopedia of American regional cultures
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures, William R.
Ferris, ISBN 0313332665, 9780313332661
Contributor William R. Ferris
Publisher Greenwod Press, 2004
ISBN 0313327343, 9780313327346

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ETHNICITY i
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures:
The South

“Now identifying themselves as having Native American, African American,
and English, Scots-Irish, Tunisian, Portuguese, or other Mediterranean
ancestry, Melungeons problematize the usual binary categorization of
“race.” They populate areas from southeastern Kentucky to east Tennessee
and southwest Virginia in unknown numbers. John Shelton Reed cited those
who dared to advance any population figure, however imprecise, as
estimating the Melungeon population at 5,000 to 15,000. Christopher
Everett notes that there have been other, more sensational, estimates as
high as 200,000.78 The 1990s saw the development of Melungeon family
reunions, cookbooks, historic preservation efforts, and heritage tourism
to Turkey (another possible ancestral homeland).79 In Barbour and Taylor
counties of West Virginia, those of mixed African, Native American, and
European ancestry are called “Guineas.” The Melungeons of Louisiana have
been called “Redbones,” and number perhaps 20,000.”
Title The Greenwood encyclopedia of American regional cultures
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures, William R.
Ferris, ISBN 0313332665, 9780313332661
Contributor William R. Ferris
Publisher Greenwod Press, 2004
ISBN 0313327343, 9780313327346

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Bank
The Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments

“The Georges and Grand Banks are significant for maritime heritage tourism
in Atlantic Canada and New England, respectively. In the 1890s, spectator
vessels from ports like Boston turned out to watch merchant sailing boats,
often designed by America’s Cup yacht designers, racing to Gloucester
(USA) with fresh fish from these fisheries.”

Title The encyclopedia of tourism and recreation in marine environments
Cabi Series
Author Michael Lk
Editor Michael Lk
Edition illustrated
Publisher CABI, 2008
ISBN 1845933508, 9781845933500
Length 587 pages

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Heritage
The Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments

“Often, the promotion and acceptance of heritage is supported by
governments and private investments for the economic benefits that can
evolve through heritage tourism. As a subgroup of tourism, heritage
tourism has evolved as travel to specific locations to experience cultural
and/or natural heritage. The heritage of a destination can help to create
a destination’s image and attract both domestic and international
tourists. Visitors to heritage sites learn about history, culture and
nature through interpretation, which is often provided by a knowledgeable
tour guide.”
Title The encyclopedia of tourism and recreation in marine environments
Cabi Series
Author Michael Lk
Editor Michael Lk
Edition illustrated
Publisher CABI, 2008
ISBN 1845933508, 9781845933500
Length 587 pages

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Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary
Route 66 Festival

“The movement to “Save Historic Route 66” by promoting heritage tourism
along the historic highway began in the late 1960s and has been going on
ever since. Route 66 festivals have been held in several towns and cities
located along the old highway, particularly Landergin, Texas, Albuquerque,
New Mexico, and Clinton, Oklahoma, where the Route 66 Museum is located.
They feature such events as lectures by authors who have written books
about the highway, the showing of films involving Route 66, photographic
and art exhibits, and music by such well-known performers as the late
Bobby Troup, best remembered for his hit song, “Get Your Kicks on Route
66.”
Title Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary:
Detailing Nearly 2,500 Observances from All 50 States and More Than 100
Nations
Holidays, Festivals and Celebrations of the World Dictionary
Editor Cherie D. Abbey
Edition 4, revised
Publisher Omnigraphics, 2010
ISBN 0780809947, 9780780809949
Length 1323 pages

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Keywords for American Cultural Studies
Region

To engage this paradox requires an explanation of how the term has been
institutionalized. That regions are place-defined and fixed is a pervasive
assumption in the United States, embedded in the local historical
societies sponsored by innumerable villages, towns, and cities throughout
the nation; in the promotion of regional cuisines and lifestyles (e.g.,
Southern Living); and in the heritage tourism that is so widely embraced
as a source of income that the website of the Vermont Arts Council
advertises a “Cultural Heritage Tourism Toolkit.” The assumption also
informs the centers for regional studies that have proliferated in recent
decades, including the 1999 National Endowment for the Humanities
initiative to launch ten regional humanities centers devoted to developing
a “sense of place” that would underwrite the study of regional “history,
people, [and] cultures.” For over a century, scholarship on U.S. culture,
too, has presumed place as a given and viewed it as the most important
component of various regionalisms. In canonical accounts, “regions”
emerged when areas that had been “sections” of the federated nation-rural
New England, the South, the West and Midwest-were integrated into a
unified postbellum industrial capitalist, democratic nation. While history
and political economy informed these accounts, regions have been conceived
in accordance with a spatial metaphor-as physically, culturally, and
economically distant from a presumed national center.
Title Keywords for American cultural studies
Authors Bruce Burgett, Glenn Hendler
Editors Bruce Burgett, Glenn Hendler
Publisher NYU Press, 2007
ISBN 0814799485, 9780814799482
Length 288 pages

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The Dictionary of Human Geography
Chinatown

“Chinatown landscapes are also increasingly revitalized for the purposes
of heritage tourism or promoted as gentrified, conservation settings to
enhance urban aesthetics in globalizing cities. Along with other ethnic
neighbourhoods ranging from Koreatown to Little India, Chinatown as the
inscription of race in place has continued to evolve in tandem not only
with immigration dynamics but with the politics of place.”
The Dictionary of Human Geography
Publisher: Oxford : Blackwell, 2001.
Edition/Format:  Book : English : 4th ed

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Encyclopedia of Urban America:
The Cities and Suburbs
Cultural Tourism

Title Encyclopedia of Urban America: The Cities and Suburbs, Volumes 1-2
Author Neil Larry Shumsky
Editor Neil Larry Shumsky
Publisher ABC-CLIO, 1998
Original from the University of Michigan
Digitized Dec 27, 2007
ISBN 0874368464, 9780874368468
Length 974 pages

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The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism
Policy and Planning

“Florida, USA
In Florida, ecotourism policy has been developed through a cooperative
effort of many public, private and not-for-profit enterprises, including
all levels of government, commercial enterprises, conservation
organizations, historical and archaeological groups, museums, the tourism
industry, tourism commissions and councils, and operators. Florida’s
ecotourism policy, developed by the Ecotourism/Heritage Tourism Advisory
Committee (1997), is a blueprint for the state’s future development of
ecotourism and heritage tourism. It identifies goals, strategies and
recommendations to protect and promote the natural, coastal, historical
and cultural assets of Florida, with the purpose of linking these to
commercial tourism in Florida.”

Title The encyclopedia of ecotourism
CABI Publishing Series
Cabi Series
Author David Bruce Weaver
Editor David Bruce Weaver
Edition illustrated, reprint
Publisher CABI, 2001
ISBN 0851993680, 9780851993683
Length 668 pages

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MILLER, TOBY. “Cultural Policy.” The Encyclopedia of Literary and Cultural
Theory. Ryan, Michael (ed). Blackwell Publishing, 2011. Blackwell
Reference Online. 18 April 2011

Since the late twentieth century, First World economic production has been
shifting from a farming and manufacturing base to a cultural one,
harnessing the cultural skills of the population to jobs in music,
theater, animation, recording, radio, TV, architecture, software, design,
toys, books, heritage, tourism, advertising, fashion, crafts, photography,
the internet, and cinema. The International Intellectual Property Alliance
estimates that the copyright industries (their term for the cultural
industries) were worth US $ 1.38 trillion in the US in 2005 – 11.12
percent of total gross domestic product – and were responsible for 23.78
percent of growth in the overall economy. The sector employs more than 11
million people across the country, which is over 8 percent of the
workforce. And in terms of foreign sales, 2005 exports of music, software,
film, television, and print were US $110.82 billion (Siwek 2006).
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Chapter Twenty-Five.
History and Memory
David Glassberg
Glassberg, David.
“History and Memory.” A Companion to American Cultural History. Halttunen,
Karen (ed).
Blackwell Publishing, 2008.

In applying these insights concerning memory and environment to the study
of the past, historians can examine the extent to which Americans’ high
degree of geographical mobility undermined their ability to identify with
distinctive places and local histories. I have suggested elsewhere
(Glassberg 2001) that the experience of geographic mobility socialized
Americans to form attachments in memory to multiple locales. Among the
distinctive memory practices that developed in nineteenth-century America
were Pioneer Societies celebrating the first (white) settlers in a town,
Old Home Week and periodic reunions of former residents, and the formation
of social organizations in distant places based on members’ attachment to
where they used to live, such as the Sons of New England in California.
Much of the local-color literature popular in late nineteenth-century
America consisted of memoirs written by authors who had long departed the
places they wrote about. A nation of immigrants on the move, Americans
seemed to be always remembering a home somewhere else, either in another
part of the United States or overseas, or else remembering a past local
environment dramatically different from that of their present. In the
twentieth century, the sentiment for remembered places fueled the
emergence of museum villages, historic preservation, and heritage tourism.

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24. Redefining Englishness:
British Short Fiction from 1945 to the Present
James M. Lang

Lang, James M. “Redefining Englishness:
British Short Fiction from 1945 to the Present.”
A Companion to the British and Irish Short Story.
Malcolm, Cheryl Alexander and David Malcolm (eds).
Blackwell Publishing, 2008.

“Julian Maclaren-Ross’s short fiction, first published in the early 1940s
and continuing to appear through the latter half of the 1950s, tends to
focus on one of two realms of human experience: army life, or the bohemian
world of writers and artists constantly in search of money and drink. As
Paul Willets observes of the settings of his short fiction, “the world of
Maclaren-Ross’s writing tends to be the dingy, down-at-heel world of
smoke-veiled bars, rented lodgings, blacked-out streets, and wartime army
garrisons” (Maclaren-Ross 2004: 7). A story which captures well the
transition from the old England landscape to that of the post-war period
describes the journey of the narrator and his girlfriend from London to
Oxford. The two of them are “determined to get away from London for a bit”
(Maclaren-Ross 2004: 83), in search of more picturesque settings. They
settle on Oxford which, for the narrator, “was associated in my mind with
grey stones and sported oaks and cloistral calm” (Maclaren-Ross 2004:
183). The narrator splurges on first-class train tickets, but the
carriages are all full so they stand for the entire trip. Once there, the
narrator’s expectations of the beautiful scenery he hopes to find are
immediately dashed: “My mental picture of the place may have been muddled,
but I did expect to see from the window a perspective of dreaming spires.
I saw instead a gasworks. This was immediately blotted out by an
advertisement for timber and a line of trucks filled with coal”
(Maclaren-Ross 2004: 183). Hence not merely have the natural landscapes
given way to the pressures of urbanization, but also the historical
monuments and scenes upon which England’s heritage and tourism industry
largely rests. They have become blighted with the needs of life in the
modern city (the gasworks and coal trucks), and the increasingly
consumer-oriented culture of the late twentieth century (the
advertisement). For the remainder of the story, the two main characters
wander about in a futile search for a night’s lodging, only to have to
give up and catch the last train back to London. Symbolically, the England
they sought in Oxford – the England of monuments and greenery – has
disappeared.”

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Chapter 13.
Heritage
Steven Hoelscher
Hoelscher, Steven.
“Heritage.”
A Companion to Museum Studies.
Macdonald, Sharon (ed).
Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

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31.
Recent and Contemporary Women Writers in the South
Sharon Monteith
Monteith, Sharon.
“Recent and Contemporary Women Writers in the South.”
A Companion to the Literature and Culture of the American South.
Gray, Richard and Owen Robinson (eds).
Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

“From Ellen Glasgow and Eudora Welty to Alice Walker and Ellen Douglas, a
sense of place has proved a resonant feature of fiction. Josephine
Humphreys asserts “Fiction must take place” and in Rich in Love (1987) two
characters take a tour of Charleston, the city in which they have grown up
and which they still call home. They experience what has come to be
recognized as heritage tourism (“the smell of bus fuel had become the
dominant smell of the city”) as they take in Fort Sumter, Boone Hall
Plantation, and the Old Slave Mart Museum. One character, Rhody, disguises
herself before joining the tourists in order to gain a different
perspective on the South she knows so well, otherwise “You get in your
way.” One way of expanding tropes of one’s region is through
deterritorialization, as Deleuze and Guattari describe it in On the Line
(1983). From an estranged, displaced perspective the South is divested of
its seemingly generic in dual-location novels where comparative landscapes
become symbolic of cultural interaction and exchange. In The Color Purple
the two sisters spend much of their lives writing back and forth between
Africa and Georgia and in In Country Sam’s fixation on Vietnam extends
into a meditation on the temporal and historical connection between
Hopewell, Kentucky and Quang Ngai, as signaled in her father’s life and
death”
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Chapter Seven.
African Americans
Philip D. Morgan

Morgan, Philip D.
“African Americans.”
A Companion to Colonial America.
Vickers, Daniel (ed).
Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

“Perhaps the most notable popular development of the past decade or so is
African Americans’ willingness to engage with, rather than ignore,
slavery. For too long, most American blacks, in Toni Morrison’s memorable
words, preferred to forget the unforgettable and leave the unspeakable
unspoken. That stance has been changing, although slowly and with notable
setbacks, as in 1995 when black employees at the Library of Congress
managed to remove an exhibition about slave housing because they claimed
it was humiliating. But, at plantations all across America, descendants of
slaves are now honoring their ancestors. On January 1,2001, for example,
exactly two hundred years after Martha Washington freed her husband’s
slaves, their descendants gathered at Mount Vernon to share stories and
pay tribute to the men and women who “helped build a nation.” When news
reports revealed that 400 of the 650 workers who built the White House and
the first phase of the Capitol in the 1790s were black slaves, two black
representatives (one Republican, the other a Democrat) immediately called
for a memorial to recognize their achievements. Powerful new gene
technology is being enlisted in black Americans’ search for their African
ancestry. The aim is to find out the probable African region of origin and
restore the specifics of identity lost under slavery. Seeking cultural, as
opposed to genetic, roots inspires a form of heritage tourism – to the
former slave castles and forts along the west coast of Africa. When the
Association of Black Psychologists held its first overseas conference in
Ghana, one of its organizers touted the therapeutic value of reconnecting
to a painful past. Many black churches in the nation have been replacing
white with black figures in biblical art and stained glass. Perhaps most
striking is the growing number of African Americans who collect relics of
slavery – shackles, neck collars, branding irons, bills of sale,
emancipation papers, and the like. For these African Americans, laying
claim to, and making sense of, America’s most shameful legacy are prime
motivations. Slavery has become a subject of pride, not shame; the slaves’
survival skills, despite the restraints placed on them, are emphasized.
Individuals are taking their collections to schools and colleges to make
sure that the “Black Holocaust” – for many activists, the preferred term
for slavery – is never forgotten.”

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Tourism and National Heritage (U.S.)
Source: Encyclopedia of Race and Racism.
Ed. John Hartwell Moore. Vol. 3.
Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008.
p134-144.

“Heritage tourism is a form of cultural tourism. According to Bob
McKercher and Hilary du Cros (2002), cultural tourism builds on “a
community or a nation’s cultural heritage assets” (p. 7). According to the
International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), heritage includes
both tangible and intangible assets, culturally significant places both
built and natural, collections of papers and artifacts, and “past and
continuous cultural practices, knowledge, and living experiences” (ICOMOS,
1999, p. 7). African American heritage tourism is therefore part of the
cultural discourse of both communities and nations. In addition to a
resurgence of interest in and development of heritage tourist sites in the
United States, African American heritage travel includes travel to African
nations such as Senegal and Ghana, nations of the Caribbean, as well as
Europe, Latin America, and Canada.

African American heritage tourism raises issues of how history and
heritage are spoken of, the interests of potential audiences and funders,
and conflicting perspectives on the meaning of historical events,
artifacts, personages, and sites. The inclusion of African American
heritage and its movement from margin to center in U.S. history is itself
a radical revisioning of national heritage.”
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Title: Cultural Conservation
Author(s): Justin M. Nolan Source:
Encyclopedia of Anthropology.
Ed. H. James Birx. Vol. 2.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference, 2006. p625-626.

“Cultural resources are malleable, and as such, they can be reconstituted
and presented to the public as nostalgic expressions of “living history.”
Region-specific customs and materials have persevered as tourist
commodities, such as sea grass baskets in coastal South Carolina,
Amish-made quilts in central Pennsylvania, maple syrup in upstate Vermont,
or woven blankets sold on Navajo reservations. Visitors to folk cultural
regions can now visit theme parks and museums demonstrating romantic and
mythical images of past ways of life. While the promotion of cultural
resources for mainstream consumption may seem to undermine their
authenticity, “heritage tourism” can indeed reaffirm cultural cohesiveness
and thus help ensure the rejuvenation of living traditions and
expressions. Accordingly, the manipulation of tradition is not
degenerative to cultural continuity, but an adaptive response to
commercialization.”

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Title: Museums
Author(s): Isabel Wollaston
Source: A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations.
Ed. Edward Kessler and Neil Wenborn.
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2005. p304.

“There is a contemporary resurgence of interest in Jewish culture,
reflected in the number of museums, festivals (e.g. Krak’s Festival of
Jewish Culture, established by two non-Jews in 1988) and organisations
(e.g. the Council of American Jewish Museums (1977)). As Ruth Gruber
notes, Jewish culture is increasingly produced and consumed by non-Jews:
‘in scores of cities, villages, and towns where few or no Jews live today,
local Jewish history is being reclaimed, recognised, exhibited, and
exploited as part of local Jewish heritage’ (Virtually Jewish: Reinventing
Jewish Culture in Europe, 75). In part, such interest stems from the
growing popularity of roots/heritage tourism. In part, particularly in
central and eastern Europe, it is a genuine attempt to rethink local and
national identities by integrating a country’s relations with its Jewish
community into its own self-understanding and history.”

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Title: Archaeology
Author(s): Christina B. Rieth
Source: Encyclopedia of Anthropology.
Ed. H. James Birx. Vol. 1.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference, 2006. p236-244.

Archaeology in the 21st Century

“In the 21st century, archaeologists have and will continue to face new
challenges when reconstructing the past. Included among these challenges
are the involvement of Native American groups in reconstructing their own
past history, the increasing destruction of sites at the hands of human
and nonhuman factors, and the increasing importance of heritage tourism in
promoting the historic resources of a region.”

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Title: State Parks
Author(s): John Confer
Source: Encyclopedia of Recreation and Leisure in America.
Ed. Gary S. Cross. Vol. 2.
Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2004. p312-315.

“The state park systems are managed by a number of different agencies and
departments in the various state governments. Typically, state park
systems are housed as a division or bureau in a department of
conservation, natural resources, or environmental protection, much the
same as the National Park Service is an agency within the U.S. Department
of Interior. However, this is not always the case: some are located in
tourism or recreation departments, while in a few states they operate as
independent cabinet-level departments. Additionally, the management styles
vary considerably across the states. Some state parks focus primarily on
preservation and offer little in the way of developed amenities, while
others offer highly-developed facilities, including a range of recreation
opportunities and even full-service resorts. Still others remain primarily
undeveloped wildlands focusing on the provision of dispersed outdoor
recreation opportunities. Many state park systems have shifted their
management focus toward nature-based tourism, heritage tourism, and
ecotourism. This alliance with tourism has increased park visitation and
helped grow park budgets.”

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Leisure
Source: Europe Since 1914:
Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction.
Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 3.
Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006. p1637-1643.

Increasingly, European families spend larger portions of their income on
their homes and furnishings, suggesting a domestication of leisure. While
in 1950 food comprised 49 percent of the average French family budget and
housing absorbed merely 14 percent, by 1985 food decreased to 19 percent
and housing costs rose to 26 percent of family income. Suburbanization and
detached houses gradually supplanted the traditional urban apartment
living, and with these changes came new domestic leisure endeavors,
especially the do-it-yourself movement. Automobile ownership also rose
sharply, from 10 percent of French households in 1950 to 75 percent by
1980. The popularization of the family car transformed tourism.
Blackpool’s Central Station, the great railway hub of tourist arrivals as
recently as the early 1950s, closed in 1964, reflecting the rising
importance of the bus as well as the private car. Even more, the car
facilitated holiday trips to quieter or sunnier climes in southwest
England or on the European continent. It also increased the popularity of
heritage tourism to ancient estates and castles.
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Tourism
Author(s): Nelson H. H. Graburn
Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Asia.
Ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson. Vol. 5.
New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. p514-522.

“This nostalgia encompasses local attractions in the countryside, old
neighborhoods in cities, “lineage tourism,” in which city dwellers visit
ancestral home communities, and “heritage tourism,” in which, for example,
affluent urbanites of Hong Kong who could not visit their own home
villages adopted the nearby Ping Shan walled community.”

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Landscape and Settlement
Author(s): Patrick J. Duffy
Source: Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture.
Ed. James S. Donnelly, Jr.. Vol. 1.
Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. p359-367.

“The Irish heritage in buildings is modest by European standards. Before
the seventeenth century, Ireland was a comparatively underdeveloped and
politically fragmented entity, thus preventing the articulation of a
significant island-wide economy. Unlike the rest of Europe, where
significant remnants of the medieval-built environment survive, military
and economic instability meant that most Irish medieval structures have
been in ruins for more than three hundred years. The majority of inherited
structures still in use today originated largely in the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries. The more significant buildings are the mansion
houses of the wealthy landed elite-referred to as the “Big Houses” of the
gentry, or as “stately homes” by heritage tourism-which accompany
estates.”

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Rapa Nui
Author(s): Miki Makihara
Source: Encyclopedia of Anthropology.
Ed. H. James Birx. Vol. 5.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference, 2006. p1985-1989.

“Except for the attention of anthropologists and archaeologists, such as
the 1934-35 Franco-Belgian expedition led by Alfred Mraux and Henri
Lavachery and the 1955-56 Norwegian expedition with Heyerdahl and William
Mulloy, Rapa Nui remained largely isolated from the world until the
mid-1960s. Until then, an annual cargo ship had been the primary form of
communication and transportation. In the 1960s, a campaign of civil
disobedience led by Alfonso Rapu, a young teacher who had been trained in
Chile, finally brought about the end of Navy rule, which had controlled
the island since 1955. Responding to this movement, Chile established a
local civil administration in 1966 and opened regular air travel from the
capital of Santiago shortly after. The Rapa Nui were then, for the first
time, granted rights to travel freely within and outside the island and to
participate in electoral political processes, leading to the election of
the first Rapa Nui mayor. The rapid integration of this community into the
national and global economy in the years that followed has led to
accelerated acculturation, intermarriage, and language shift from Rapa Nui
to Spanish. At the same time, however, the Rapa Nui community has become
actively involved in the development of heritage tourism and restoration
projects of the archaeological patrimony, and have led a largely
successful cultural revival movement.”

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heritage tourism
Canadians absorb much of their knowledge of the past from historic sites,
landscapes, buildings, and plaques. Heritage tourism is both an activity
pursued by travellers and a component of a major service industry. It
mixes travel and recreation with …

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History
Edited by Gerald Hallowell
1,700 entries
This is the essential reference title for all those interested in Canadian
History. From the Norse to Nunavut, The Oxford Companion to Canadian
History provides an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the
significant events, issues, institutions, places, and people that have
shaped Canada from earliest times to the prese

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
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[Net-Gold] TOURISM AND TRAVEL: HERITAGE TOURISM : REFERENCE TOOLS : BOOKS: Finding Heritage Tourism in a Selection of Reference Tools: A Selection of Sources

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