Clinical Guidance for Healthcare Providers Caring for Infants & Children
- Testing of infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection should be guided by 1) whether the infant has abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome (e.g., microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, or other brain or eye abnormalities) and 2) the mother’s Zika virus testing results.
- Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has two or more of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia.
- Acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant in the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has two or more of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia.
- Zika virus infection can be diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or through serologic testing.
- No cases of Zika virus infection associated with breastfeeding have been reported. CDC encourages mothers with Zika virus infection and living in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission to breastfeed their infants. Current evidence suggests that the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the theoretical risks of Zika virus transmission through breast milk.
Latest Changes: CDC updated the guidance on August 19, 2016. The revised guidance updates recommendations for the initial evaluation and testing of infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and establishes recommendations for the outpatient management and follow up of infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection, with or without apparent abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome (e.g., microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, or other brain or eye abnormalities). Families and caregivers will need ongoing psychosocial support and assistance with coordination of care.
- UPDATE: Interim Guidance for the Evaluation and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection – United States, August 2016 (MMWR, August 19, 2016)
- UPDATE: Interim Guidelines for Healthcare Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection – United States, February 2016 (MMWR, Feb. 19, 2016)
- Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection – United States, 2016 (MMWR, Jan. 29, 2016)
- Resources and Guidance for Healthcare Providers Caring for Infants Affected by Zika Virus
- Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks(EID, May 2016)
- Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions — United States, 2016 (MMWR, March 25, 2016)
- Zika virus and birth defects – Reviewing the evidence for causality (NEJM, 2016)
Health Care for Infants
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